## Fallacies on June 12 Declaration

Fallacy: Emilio Aguinaldo read the Declaration of Independence of the Philippines from Spain from the balcony of his home in Kawit, Cavite.

Fact: Contrary to popular belief Aguinaldo did not read the Declaration of Independence; his adviser Abrosio Rianzares did. Aguinaldo did not write it either; Rianzares-Bautista did that too. Furthermore, the declaration document was read from the center window of the Aguinaldo mansion; the present famous “Independence Balcony” was only added to the house in 1919.

Fallacy: The Act of Independence took effect immediately on June 12, 1898.

Fact: The Act of Independence was not promulgated until August 1, 1898, when many areas were organized under the rules laid down by the dictatorial government. Heads of these towns met and ratified the Declaration of Independence. Later, the Malolos Congress would yet again ratify the June 12 Declaration of Independence.

Fallacy: The Philippine Flag was first unfurled at the Aguinaldo Mansion on June 12 1898.

Fact: The Philippine flag sewn in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo who was assisted by her Daughter Lorenza and Jose Rizal’s Niece Delfina Herbosa, was brought back to the Philippines by Aguinaldo when he returned from exile to Hong Kong. The Flag was used as Aguinaldo’s standard in the Battle of Alapan on May 28, 1898, long before the Declaration of Independence. This Date was recently Celebrated as National Flag day.

Fallacy: The Declaration of Independence was made and signed solely by Filipinos
Fact: The document was Indeed signed by 98 Filipinos, but one stray American, a certain M.L. Johnson, Colonel of the US Artillery attended the proceeding and signed the historical document too.

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